The First of the Nine Ways of Bön is called The Way of the Shen of Prediction and it contains methods of divination, astrology, healing rituals and medicine which deal directly with the concerns of this present, worldly life. As in all of the Nine Ways, the basis for everything compassion. However, although the ultimate goal is enlightenment, the emphasis is on the individual’s immediate circumstances during this lifetime. Within the Yungdrung Bön tradition, the knowledge for each of these methods is vast. In the words of the enlightened Lord Tönpa Shenrap Miwo:
“In general, there are 360 different kinds of divination. There are 360 kinds of astrological calculation. There are 360 kinds of ritual and 21,000 methods of diagnosis in order to avert the danger of death.”
Copy of an old text detailing a method of divination taught directly by Lord Tönpa Shenrap. Photo credit: Raven Cypress Wood
Divination: Tibetan mo, is a method through which one can obtain answers to worldly questions such as, “Will my new project be successful?” or “Will my travel be safe?” If the answer is negative, the text will either recommend a different course of action or suggest an antidote such as prayers or ritual that could change the projected course of events for the positive. It is common to ask a lama for a divination for any number of reasons such as success of new projects, buying or selling a home, traveling, health, or marriage.
There are four categories of divination within Yungdrung Bön tradition: 1) using a mala or die, 2) using the drala, or powerful spirits who are considered messengers of the gods, 3) dreams, and 4) reading signs and symbols. For all of these, before performing the divination, it is necessary to receive teachings, transmission and empowerment from a qualified lama. Then, an individual retreat is undergone in order to receive the blessings and power of the respective deity associated with the divination. Afterwards, when performing the divination, offerings, mantras and prayers are offered to the deity in order to receive their blessings and prophetic knowledge.
Astrological deities and symbols of the Yungdrung Bon. Photo credit: Raven Cypress Wood
Astrology: Tibetan tsi, is a method to determine the harmony or disharmony with the external forces of the universe as well as a calculation of the flow of time. For example, the Tibetan New Year begins somewhere between the first of February and the end of March and is determined astrologically. Each year is characterized by one of the five elements and by one of twelve animals which are alternatively male or female. The qualities of this element and animal combination are identified with every individual born within that year. Subsequently, it is possible to calculate the probable effect of any given year regarding health, success, wealth etc. For example, someone born in the year of the Male Wood Rat (1984) would have the energy of their good luck ruled by the wood element. The year 2013 of the Western calendar was a Female Water Snake year and during this year the energy of good luck is ruled by the water element. The wood element and the water element have a naturally positive relationship. Therefore, the Male Wood Rat person is likely to have a very positive year as far as their good luck is concerned. It takes sixty years in order to complete the cycle of twelve animals and five elements.
Astrological calculations are crucial in order to ascertain the most favorable date and time for important events such as religious festivals, marriages, travel, significant business dealings, healing rituals, funerals, etc. In this way, the events that take place can be in harmony with the natural energies of the universe and therefore amplify the positive outcome.
A Yungdrung Bön monk prepares for a longevity and life ransom ritual. Photo credit: Geshe Chapur Lhundrup Rinpoche.
Ritual: Tibetan to, are the ritual methods used to stop any harm coming from unseen, external forces. There are many types of unseen spirits who share the same environment as humans. According to the texts, what we perceive as empty space is actually crowded with beings that are invisible to us. Because humans change, damage and pollute the external environment without consideration for these other beings, we harm and offend these unseen spirits who then seek repayment or revenge. This can lead to sudden unexplained illness for which we cannot find an effective cure.
Once divination or astrology has established that the source of our disturbance is one or more of these external, unseen forces, a specific ritual is advised in order to restore harmony. Traditionally, a lama is asked to come to the home in order to perform the necessary ritual. The family hosts the lama and any assistants for the duration of the ritual. Some rituals can be concluded in a single day. Others may can take many days to complete depending upon the type of ritual that is required.
Detail from the tree of health and illness which shows the root and subsequent branches and leaves of both health and illness. Photo credit: Raven Cypress Wood
Medicine: Tibetan men, is a method of diagnosing and treating illness of the physical body. The root of health is awareness and virtuous behavior, and the root of illness is ignorance and non-virtuous behavior. This idea is expounded at great length in the Yungdrung Bön medical texts. Health is the balance of the qualities of wind, bile and phlegm within the body. Illness is the weakness, damage or excess of any or all of these qualities. The hot or cold nature of the imbalance is also taken into consideration.
When diagnosing the root cause of an illness, the doctor will use the three techniques for diagnosis: 1) seeing, 2) touching, and 3) questioning. These include observing the general demeanor of the patient, listening to the sound of their voice, studying the appearance and shape of their tongue, examining the qualities of their urine, and feeling the multiple pulses of both wrists. The doctor will also question the patient about their behavior, diet, and the onset of symptoms.
When prescribing medicine, the Tibetan doctor gives herbal medicines that are to be taken at specific times of day. Medicine is most effective when taken at the time that the disease is most active or at the designated time of the affected organ. Additionally, the doctor will give advice for diet and behavior, sometimes prescribing that a patient be more generous and less greedy, or to spend more time with spiritual practice and less time with mindless distraction. Prevention of disease includes the discrimination of beneficial and harmful activities as well as an appropriate diet with a proper balance of rest and activity.
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